Aug 9, 2012

Neuropsychiatric effects of incorporated radionuclides

Neuropsychiatric Effects of Ionizing Radiation
Chapter 6 Neuropsychiatric Effects of Chronic Irradiation

Pages 142-143
Table 6.2 Neuropsychiatric Effects of Incorporated Radionuclides
[by Lazarev N.V., 1951; Bajenov V.A. et al., 1990; Jzuravlev V.F., 1990 et al.]

Zinc (Zn-65) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=57 min

Accumulates in muscles, skeleton, skin, liver, hypophysis, pancreas, and gonads.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms include disorders of brain bioelectrical activity.

Strontium 89 (Sr-89) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2 = 50.5 days
Strontium 90 (Sr-90) β-emitter; T1/2=29.12 years

Selectively deposited in skeleton (mainly in bone growth zone), especially in pregnancy and lactation:  It enters fetus through placenta; enters breast milk. Less than 1% is accumulated in soft tissue.  
Neuropsychiatric symptoms include autonomic asthenic syndrome and osteoalgetic syndrome with organic damage in the central nervous system.

Iodine 131 (I-131) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=8.04 days
Iodine 133 (I-133) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2 = 20.8 hours

Thyroid, hypophysis and kidneys are the critical organs targeted especially in children.  It is also deposited in placenta and fetus.  It can induce thyroid, parathyroid and breast tumors and polyglandular endocrine pathology.  
Peripheral polyneuritis, specific neck dysesthesia and neuralgia, Horner’s syndrome, migraine attacks, and voice hoarseness are among the neuropsychiatric symptoms described.  Effect of radioactive iodine can lead to the rise of hypothyroidism in fetuses, newborns and children, eventually leading to cretinism and other psychoneurological disorders.

Cesium 134 (Cs-134) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=2.062 years
Cesium 137 (Cs-137) γ- emitter; T1/2=30 years

Relatively even distribution in the body.  Accumulates in muscles, liver, kidneys, lungs, skeleton.  It enters fetus through placenta and also enters breast milk.  Data are available about cesium accumulation in brain.  
Neuropsychiatric symptoms of cesium incorporation include autonomic asthenic and depression syndromes with organic damage in the central nervous system and autonomic polyneuritis.

Gold 198 (Au-198) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=2.696 days

Selectively accumulates in tissues of the reticuloendothelial system. Express tropism to the nervous tissue especially in spinal cord.  
Neuropsychiatric symptoms include peripheral polyneuritis and multiple paresis, in addition to other poisoning symptoms.

Mercury 203 (Hg-203) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=46.6 days

Affinity towards the kidneys.  It also accumulates in thyroid, hypophysis and brain.  In mercury intoxication, ionizing radiation and stable mercury salts can create synergistic reactions and injuries.

Thallium 204 (Tl-204) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=3.779 years

Accumulates in muscles, skeleton and parenchymal viscera.  In the skin it is mainly deposited in the growth zone of hair follicles; alteration in the creatine synthesis in hair bulbs can result in alopecia.

Lead 210 (Pb-210) β- and γ- emitter; T1/2=22.3 years

Pronounced affinity towards bones.  However it also accumulates in almost all viscera and tissues.  It is one of the most dangerous radionuclides biologically, particularly causing injuries to the nervous system, such as polyneuropathy and encephalopathy.

Radium 226 (Ra-226) α-, β- and γ-emitter; T1/2=1,600 years

Deposited in bone tissues, kidneys and salivary glands.  Radium intoxication is characterized by destruction of bone tissues; radiation osteitis leads to increased brittleness and pathological fractures of bones.  
Neuropsychiatric symptoms of radium injuries include autonomic asthenic disorders; specific symptoms of osteoalgetic syndrome such as pain in bones of hands and legs, sternum, ribs, and sometimes spine; organic injuries in the central nervous system; and radiation cataract.

Thorium 228 (Th-228) α-, β- and γ-emitter; T1/2=1.9131 years

Affinity towards bones.  Relatively mild reaction of hematopoiesis can be associated with pronounced neurological symptoms.

Uranium 238 (U-238) α-, β- and γ-emitter; T1/2=4.468 x 109 years

Extremely strong protoplasmic poison.  Bones are the critical organ targeted.  Also accumulates in parenchymal organs.  Uranium intoxication is peculiar with affinities to many organs/systems, particularly characterized by autonomic asthenic syndrome, autonomic dysfunction, organic damages in the central nervous system, and paralysis.

1 comment:

  1. Sometimes airline companies "fly their planes into the ground" because they want to get all the use they can out of their planes before buying new ones. It may be cheaper to cut back on maintenance costs as planes age, take the public relations damage when people hit the ground, and buy new planes as needed. Same with nuclear power. Rather than worry about all the costs of nuclear power, the complexities of radionuclide releases into the biosphere, and on and on, the companies just reap as much profit as they can, use public relations managers if things go wrong, and claim accidents prove nuclear power is safe. This is what they do. Profit is the bottom line. People seem to prefer to die rather than study the complexities of nuclear science, radionuclides, fuel that gets more dangerous as it is used, nuclear disposal, half-lives, a myriad of cancers and genetic damage, bioconcentration of chemical poisons in the food chain, air transport of ionizing particulates, reconcentration via the food chain in local rainout areas, apex predators becoming too toxic to eat (tuna and other fish, for example). Power companies maximize profit by minimizing the hazards, and minimizing public perception and understanding of the hazards.. This is what they do. Shareholders seeking exponential profit margins know they will be rich and dead before most of the disaster comes to public attention. Shareholders ignore and ridicule natural safe energy efficient technologies, using billionaire agencies of public relations experts to keep the public enthralled with the most dangerous and scandalous toxic threat to humanity in history. This is what they do. Human beings are now experimental laboratory animals in a worldwide free-range lab of mad scientists seeking to maximize profit and power for themselves. This is what they do.